We already talked about big data in the previous article, but now I propose to learn more about artificial intelligence: what it is, relevance, where it is used, and whether the technology is dangerous.
On February 15, 1946, the first standard computer appears – an apparatus – without which it is now impossible to imagine the work of any production, research center, company or educational institution.
In many processes, computers have already replaced human work. Even more, a 2021 Pew Research survey found that 37% of respondents are more concerned than excited about artificial intelligence . They are afraid of losing their jobs and fear the potential of technology to “surpass human skills”. In addition, tech billionaire Elon Musk, who has long advocated the regulation of artificial intelligence, called it more dangerous than nuclear weapons.
Is AI really so dangerous and we will talk about the latest computer technologies in this article.
- What is artificial intelligence?
- The first system of artificial intelligence. Early history
- AI types
- Application of artificial intelligence. Where is AI used?
- Opportunities and dangers of artificial intelligence
- The difference between AI, neural networks and machine learning
- AI algorithms. Machine learning, deep learning, neural networks and others
- How does artificial intelligence work?
- Future of AI. Is it worth it to be afraid?
What is artificial intelligence?
Simply put, artificial intelligence ( AI or English. AI is a technology for teaching computers so they can do things that currently humans can do better . Machine intelligence uses computers to mimic the ability of the human mind to solve problems and make decisions.
AI enables computers to perform many advanced functions, including the ability to see, understand and translate spoken and written language, analyze data, make recommendations, and more.
Today, the development of machine intelligence still causes a lot of excitement in the market. The author of the term “artificial intelligence”, computer scientist John McCarthy, defines the concept in his article (2004): “This is the science and technology of creating intelligent machines, especially computer programs. The concept is related to the task of using computers to understand the human mind, but technology should not be limited solely to biological methods .”
AI is a broad field spanning many different disciplines. This includes computer science, data analysis and statistics, hardware and software engineering, neuroscience, and even philosophy and psychology. The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize and take action . After all, the most correct actions have the best chances of achieving a specific goal .
The first system of artificial intelligence. Early history
The earliest successful artificial intelligence program was written in 1951 by Christopher Strachey. The Strachey checkers program ran on a Ferranti Mark I computer at the University of Manchester, England.
The first AI program launched in the United States was the checkers program written in 1952 by Arthur Samuel for the IBM 701 prototype. Samuel took over the basics of Strachey’s checkers program and expanded it considerably over the course of a few years. In 1955, he added features that allowed the program to learn from experience. Samuel included mechanisms for both memorization and generalization and improvement. Ultimately, his program won the game against the former Connecticut chess champion in 1962 .
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Based on functionality , 4 types of artificial intelligence are distinguished
1. Jet machines
This is the simplest and oldest type of artificial intelligence. The variety copies the ability of a person to respond to various types of stimuli. Has no memory.
Example: Deep Blue, an IBM supercomputer for playing chess. The device is able to identify the various pieces on the chessboard and how they move . He is able to determine all possible legal moves for himself and his opponents. Based on the variation, he chooses the best possible move. However, the supercomputer has no way to learn from its past moves. Such machines do not have their own memory .
2. Limited memory
At the moment , we are at this stage in the development of artificial intelligence. Such AI devices have memory , can use past experience to make better decisions. Most common applications fall under this category.
Example: The technology is used in many self-driving cars . There, the limited memory provides storage for GPS location data, the speed of nearby vehicles, the size and nature of obstacles, and hundreds of other data that can be manipulated in the same way a person does.
3. Theory of mind
Theory of mind is the next level of artificial intelligence technology. The presence of this type in our daily life is very limited. Now the theory of mind exists only in research laboratories and is under development . When the creation is complete, the devices will have a very deep understanding of the human mind . This includes needs, likes, emotions, thought process, etc. Based on its understanding of the human mind and its whims, the AI will be able to change its reactions .
Example: Researcher Winston in his research showed a prototype robot that can walk along a small corridor along with other robots that move from the opposite side. AI can anticipate the movements of other robots and turn around to avoid possible collisions with approaching robots. Wilson’s robot determines its actions based on “common sense” of how other robots will move.
4. Self-aware AI
This is the final stage of AI. Its existence is only hypothetical and is only found in science fiction films. This type of machine intelligence is decades, if not centuries away from materialization. This is the kind of AI that many skeptics fear. This is not surprising: a conscious artificial intelligence can go into self-preservation mode. As a result, consider humanity as a potential threat . As a consequence, such devices may directly or indirectly seek to destroy humanity.
Pay attention to 3D graphics in the modern world
Application of artificial intelligence. Where is AI used?
- AI in robotics
Industry leaders still cannot agree on what the term “robot” embodies. Today’s AI robots are able to solve problems and “think” to a limited extent. From working on assembly lines at Tesla to teaching English to Japanese students, the applications of AI in robotics are numerous.
- AI and smart assistants
If you’ve ever asked Siri to help you find your AirPods or asked Amazon Alexa to turn off the lights, then you may have interacted with one of the most pervasive forms of artificial intelligence infiltrating everyday life.
Machine intelligence is the backbone of smart assistants that are being integrated into cars and home devices. As of 2022, more than 120 million US adults use smart assistants at least once a month .
- AI in medicine
AI is a game-changer in healthcare, improving almost every aspect of the industry, from robotic operations to protecting personal data from cybercriminals. Healthcare has long suffered from rising medical costs and inefficient processes. Fortunately, the use of machine intelligence has fixed this problem.
Among the benefits of AI in medicine
- reduce unnecessary hospital visits
- return nurses 20% of their working time
- help doctors free up 17% of their working time
- contribute to the study of life-saving drugs many times faster and cheaper
- partially provide health care in underdeveloped countries .
Companies are using machine learning to analyze clinical data to identify gaps in patient care. Using AI algorithms, pathologists analyze tissue samples and make more accurate diagnoses.
- AI in business
AI and the financial industry are a match made in heaven. The financial sector relies on accuracy, real-time reporting, processing large amounts of data to make decisions – all this is handled by artificial intelligence devices. The industry is rapidly introducing automation , chatbots , adaptive intelligence, algorithmic trading , and machine learning into financial processes.
- AI in social networks
With over 2.77 billion active profiles on Twitter, Facebook and Snapchat, social networks are in a constant struggle to personalize and create a rewarding user experience. With its ability to organize huge amounts of data , recognize images , implement chatbots , and predict cultural shifts, AI is very valuable to an industry with billions of users and about $45 billion in annual revenue.
In addition, advanced machine learning is critical in an industry that is forced to fight fake news, hate speech and other violations in real time.
Opportunities and dangers of artificial intelligence
On the shortcomings of artificial intelligence, Lisa Palmer spoke to The US Sun : “It is important to understand that AI is not magic . Machine intelligence is created by humans and has all the inherent biases and problems that humans have.” It is important to purposefully set limits around the use of AI and hold people accountable when the technology is misused. And there are a number of such abuses. For example, artificial intelligence can help terrorists to carry out terrorist attacks . In fact, ISIS carried out its first successful drone attack in 2016.
As a result of the attack in Iraq, 2 people were killed. If thousands of drones were launched from a single truck or car, programmed to kill only a certain type of people, it would be a very scary type of terrorist attack using AI.
Terrorist agencies can also use autonomous vehicles to deliver and detonate bombs , creating weapons that can track movement and fire without any human assistance. These guns are already in use on the border between North and South Korea. While governments may still be ethical and try to prevent the loss of innocent lives, terrorists will not have that kind of morality, they will use these robots for terrorist attacks.
The difference between AI, neural networks and machine learning
The artificial intelligence system is built using machine learning, neural networks and other methods.
AI algorithms. Machine learning, deep learning, neural networks and others
- Machine learning . It is an AI application that automatically improves based on previous experience sets without the need for explicit programming.
- Deep learning . Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that learns by processing data with artificial neural networks.
- Neural networks . Neural networks are computer systems that work in the same way as neurons in the human brain. Using algorithms, they recognize hidden patterns in raw data, group and classify it, and continually learn and improve over time.
- Cognitive Computing . Cognitive computing is aimed at recreating the human thought process in a computer model. This application aims to mimic and improve the interaction between humans and machines by understanding human language and the meaning of images.
- Natural Language Processing (NLP) : NLP is a tool that allows computers to understand, recognize, interpret, and reproduce human language and speech.
- Computer Vision . Computer vision uses deep learning and pattern identification to interpret image content (graphs, tables, PDF images, and videos).
How does artificial intelligence work?
Artificial intelligence works by learning patterns in datasets. It combines and accumulates a large set of information through an iterative collection process. It then finds patterns in the data to predict outcomes. With each iteration , the AI model measures the confidence level of the decisions. Thanks to its computing power, the technology is able to process millions of data in a very short time. In short, if you want a computer to solve problems on its own, you need machine intelligence to do it.
Future of AI. Is it worth it to be afraid?
As talk about the promise of artificial intelligence emerges, we may begin to see the first glimpses of disappointment. Experts believe that innovations in AI products, such as self-driving cars or personal assistants, follow the typical progression of innovation: from over -enthusiasm through a period of frustration to an ultimate understanding of relevance and role in the world. Even the Internet at the time of its inception received a lot of negative feedback. But now it is obvious that the Internet will never be replaced.
Many people fear that with the further development of AI, they may lose their jobs. Well, regarding this, Kai Fu Lui, the head of AI in China, spoke out: “Progress improves the life of civilization, and artificial intelligence is just a special case of automation .” Technology is not created to deprive people of work, but simply to make their work easier.
Unfortunately, as the power of artificial intelligence grows, we will also see it being used for dangerous or malicious purposes. Because AI technology is evolving so rapidly, it is vital for us to start discussing the best ways to positively develop AI while minimizing its disruptive potential .
Given the human inability to analyze complex datasets, AI is becoming an effective tool for businesses to effectively act on Big Data. To work with big data, databases are most often used, because they greatly simplify the process of working with information.
Our company KLONA is engaged in the development, configuration and modification of databases . Thanks to many years of experience, we will determine exactly what kind of database your business needs.