Трехмерная графикаThree-dimensional graphics are now firmly entrenched in our lives, and sometimes we do not even pay attention to its manifestations.

Looking at a billboard with a picture of the interior of a room or a commercial about ice cream, watching the shots of an action-packed film, we do not even realize that all this is a painstaking work of the master of 3d graphics.

3D graphics are

3D graphics (three-dimensional graphics) is a special type of computer graphics – a set of methods and tools used to create images of 3D objects (three-dimensional objects).

It is not difficult to distinguish a 3D image from a two-dimensional one, since it includes the creation of a geometric projection of a 3d-model of the scene onto a plane using specialized software products. The resulting model can be an object from reality, for example, a model of a house, car, comet, or it can be completely abstract. The process of building such a three-dimensional model is called 3d modeling and is aimed primarily at creating a visual volumetric image of the modeled object.

Today, based on three-dimensional graphics, you can create a high-precision copy of a real object, create something new, and bring to life the most unrealistic design ideas.

Application of 3D graphics

Современная 3д графика3d graphics technologies and 3d printing technologies have penetrated into many spheres of human activity, and bring colossal profits.

Three-dimensional images bombard us every day on television, in movies, when working with a computer and in 3D games, from billboards, clearly representing the power and achievements of 3D graphics.

Achievements of modern 3D graphics are used in the following industries

  1. Cinematography and animation – creation of three-dimensional characters and realistic special effects Creation of computer games – development of 3d characters, virtual reality of the environment, 3d objects for games.
  2. Advertising – the possibilities of 3d graphics allow you to profitably present the product to the market, with the help of three-dimensional graphics you can create the illusion of a crystal-white shirt or an appetizing fruit ice cream with chocolate chips, etc. At the same time, in real life, the advertised product can have many flaws that are easily hidden behind beautiful and high-quality images.
  3. Interior design – design and development of interior design is also not complete today without three-dimensional graphics. 3D technologies make it possible to create realistic 3D models of furniture (sofa, armchair, chair, chest of drawers, etc.), accurately repeating the geometry of the object and creating an imitation of the material. With the help of three-dimensional graphics, you can create a video showing all the floors of a projected building, which may not have even begun to be built.

Steps for creating a three-dimensional image

3Д изображенияIn order to get a 3D image of an object, you must perform the following steps

  1. Modeling – construction of a mathematical 3D model of the general scene and its objects.
  2. Texturing includes applying textures to created models, setting materials and making models realistic.
  3. Lighting setup
  4. Animation creation (moving objects).
  5. Rendering – the process of creating an image of an object based on a previously created model.
  6. Compositing or compositing – post-processing of the resulting image.

Modeling – creation of a virtual space and objects inside it, includes the creation of various geometries, materials, light sources, virtual cameras, additional special effects.

The most common 3D modeling software products are: Autodesk 3D max, Pixologic Zbrush, Blender.

Texturing is an overlay on the surface of the created three-dimensional model of a raster or vector image that allows you to display the properties and material of the object.

Рендеринг и визуализацияLighting – creating, setting the direction and setting up light sources in the created scene. Graphic 3D editors, as a rule, use the following types of light sources: spot light (diverging rays), omni light (omni-directional light), directional light (parallel rays), etc. Some editors provide the ability to create a source of volumetric glow (Sphere light).

Animation – the creation of moving objects, or rather imitation of the movement of the model. Modern 3D editors contain many tools for creating tools, there are also specialized software products for creating animation with tools for building three-dimensional models.

Rendering – transformation of a three-dimensional model of an object into a “flat” image. There are several types of rendering technology, each with their own pros and cons: scanline, z-buffer, ray tracing, global illumination.

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