Mapping and texturing

Texturing or mapping is one of the main stages of work on creating a three-dimensional model, which consists in giving certain properties to the surfaces of the modeled object in order to make the model realistic.

3d modeling technologies, texturing (3d mapping), and printing on a 3d printer are in mass demand today due to their simplicity and affordability.

Creating 3d models is a rather complicated and painstaking process based on the use of professional programs for creating 3d graphics.

The realism of the finished model primarily depends on the materials chosen to create the texture.

The possibilities of professional graphics programs today are practically unlimited in possibilities. Therefore, the realism, aesthetics, and accuracy of the 3d model depend only on the skill of the designer.


A texture is a bitmap image that is superimposed on a polygonal model created in a graphics program in order to give it a certain texture, color, or relief.

Texturing or mapping is one of the main stages of work on creating a three-dimensional model, which consists in giving certain properties to the surfaces of the modeled object in order to make the model realistic.

For example, in order for the modeled plane to look like a road surface or asphalt, you need to:

  • Repaint the created plane in the color of the asphalt surface;
  • In order to give the asphalt a natural shine, you need to create a gloss map;
  • To roughen the surface, it is necessary to build a map of irregularities;
  • The reflectivity of the asphalt is created on the basis of the constructed reflection map. Wet asphalt is much more reflective than dry asphalt.

Having done all the above steps, you can turn the simulated surface into natural asphalt.

The quality of surface texturing is determined by textiles. Textile is the number of pixels per (minimum) texture unit. The texture aspect ratio and resolution are the determining factors of the resulting 3D graphics.


Mapping or texture mapping is a method of giving the surface of a modeled object certain properties by imposing an image called a texture on it.

Applying textures:

  • Texturing is used primarily to show what material an object is made of, for example, by applying a series of filled rectangles to the surface, you can get a brick wall;
  • Mapping (Mapping) clearly demonstrates the physical properties of the modeled object;
  • Applying textures allows you to simulate a reflection or other lighting effects to make objects realistic.
  • Ability to create small objects on the surface of the model – small stones, folds on clothes, wrinkles, scars, etc., the creation of which with the help of polygons would be a very long and costly process;
  • Also 3d mapping is used when rendering volumes.

Texture creation methods:

  1. Creating a texture by drawing in a 2d editor – Gimp, Photoshop, etc.;
  2. In 3d drawing packages (ZBrush, 3D-Coat, Mudbox, Mari, etc.);
  3. Development of texture based on procedural maps;
  4. Combining various kinds of procedural techniques in 2d and 3d format.


There are 2 main types of texturing:

Embossed texturing;

mip texturing.

Relief texturing is a computer graphics technology that gives the surface of a modeled object realism and saturation.

There are the following types of relief texturing:

  1. Bump mapping is a technology for giving the effect of surface relief with careful detailing of all design elements. As a rule, such an effect is created using a light source and a single-channel height map in black-and-white format, by shifting the pixels virtually. Due to this, it is possible to obtain darkened or differently illuminated areas. Bump mapping is used to create complex bumpy surfaces, deep depressions, or ledges.
  2. Normal mapping is a technology that changes the normal of a pixel based on a colored normal map, in which the deviation data is stored as texels. This method uses 3 texture channels in the normal map, which makes it more accurate.
  3. Parallax occlusion mapping is a local ray tracing technology used to determine the visibility and heights of a texel. This method makes it possible to realize an even stronger depth of relief, but does not allow for deep detailing of edges and details.


A method of texture mapping that uses multiple copies of the same texture image with varying degrees of detail.

You can order mapping and texturing services from KLONA. Our specialists have many years of experience in the field of 3d modeling and texturing (3d mapping). We work on the basis of only professional programs for creating 3D models and texture mapping (texturing in 3d max).

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