Creation of 3d models is an irreplaceable process today. not only in industry, but also in many other areas of human activity, such as medicine, architecture, construction, design, education, cinematography, etc.
Making 3d models allows evaluate the technical and physical features of the object simulation, even before the manufacture of its real sample. Thanks to the 3D model of the product, you can analyze the dimensions of the product, its configuration and material.
Creation of 3D models is an integral part of technical documentation and high-quality product presentation.
3D modeling: concept and scope
Three-dimensional modeling is a separate type of computer graphics, which includes all the necessary tools and techniques used to build a three-dimensional model of an object (in three-dimensional space).
3D modeling techniques graphic object include: calculation of the size and parameters of the object, construction of the volumetric shape of the object (without detailing), drawing the “skeleton”, as well as the processes of building, cutting, extrusion of object parts.
3D Modeling Tools Is a professional software designed for working with 3D graphics. These primarily include 3DMAX, ProEngineering, SolidWork programs, as well as other software products for volumetric visualization of objects.
Applications of 3D modeling:
- Advertising and marketing … The 3D model of the object is indispensable when preparing a presentation of a new product, as well as for creating a 3D visualization of an object used in advertising products, when developing packaging design, design of exhibition stands and POS materials.
- Industry … Pre-production modeling of products allows you to detect and eliminate product shortcomings before the direct start of production, which significantly reduces the financial costs of the manufacturer.
- Computer games and cinematography … 3D modeling allows you to create three-dimensional landscapes, animated characters, models of 3D heroes, environments for computer games and video games. In cinematography, 3D technologies are used as a tool for creating landscapes and individual 3D objects.
- Architecture and design … 3D models of buildings and structures are an integral part of the modern design process, on the basis of which you can make a prototype of an object, if necessary, with the maximum degree of detail. 3D modeling in interior design allows the customer to see how the finished design project of a room or office will look like, even before renovation work.
- Animation … Creation of animated characters that can move, as well as the creation of an animated video based on the design of animation scenes.
Stages of creating a 3D model
The production of 3d models is carried out in several stages:
- Form creation and construction of the geometry of the object model – the process of modeling the geometric shape of an object without taking into account its physical characteristics. At this stage, they use such 3D modeling techniques as: extrusion, rotation, polygonal modeling or modifiers.
- Texturing … The degree of realism of the model will directly depend on the selected materials when applying textures to the object. Read more about texturing in the article “ Mapping and texturing “.
- Setting up lighting and choosing a vantage point … A rather difficult stage in the development of a 3D model, the degree of realism of the model directly depends on how accurately and correctly the light is exposed, the indicators of brightness, depth of shadows, sharpness.
- Rendering and 3D rendering – the final stage of building a 3D model, designed to detail the display settings of a three-dimensional model, as well as add graphic special effects, for example, fog, glare, shine, etc. At this stage, the 3D visualization settings are also detailed and refined.
- Post-processing of the obtained images of the 3D model , adding aesthetic visual effects that grab attention and arouse consumer interest.
Requirements for 3D models
Before proceeding with prototyping according to the obtained three-dimensional model, it is necessary to analyze the model and its adaptation:
- Analyze the geometry of the 3D model – test it for the presence of open spaces in the polygonal mesh, the presence of incorrect displacements of polygons, as well as defects in the geometry.
- Checking all parameters , sizes and tolerances for their compliance with the technical data of the equipment that will be used to create the prototype, as well as for compliance with the materials for printing.
- 3d model adaptation for the equipment used.
In addition, it is necessary that the 3D model meets the following requirements:
- edges, chamfers, wall thickness must correspond to the following parameters: minimum – not less than 0.5 mm, optimal – 1 mm or more;
- the tolerances of the 3d model must be changed in accordance with the requirements of the equipment, and also take into account the possible shrinkage of the material;
- set the print pitch depending on the material used: ABS plastic – 0.125-0.5 mm, PLA plastic – 0.125-0.5 mm.
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