Texturing is an integral stage of 3D modeling and rendering of a three-dimensional object. The creation of a texture and its imposition on a 3D model determine its quality, realism and accuracy.
Application of professional computer programs, texturing 3d max , for working with graphics provide unlimited possibilities for working with 3D objects, regardless of the complexity of the object’s configuration, type of materials, and others.
Texture – This is an image (raster format) applied to the polygonal model by overlaying, in order to give the model texture, relief and the desired color.
Texturing – an important stage in the process of creating and visualizing a 3D model of a product, which allows you to give the surface of a volumetric object certain parameters and properties, to give it maximum realism and resemblance to a real object.
The texturing quality of an object is determined by units such as texil. Texil is a collection of pixels per 1 texture unit. The image format and resolution of the texture used directly determine the quality of the final results.
Texture Creation – Basic Techniques
There are the following main methods of creating textures :
- rendering in a graphic 2d editor, for example, Photoshop;
- creating a texture in a 3D painting package such as Mudbox, ZBrush, Mari or 3D-Coat;
- construction based on procedural maps;
- complex application of procedural techniques of various kinds, 2d and 3d format.
For example, if you need to create a brick wall texture, then you need to perform the following sequence of actions:
- creation of a plane, search and refinement of the texture of a brick wall. Creation of a seamless texture of a brick wall in 2D programs;
- a gloss map is created to give the texture of the brick wall a light, realistic sheen;
- surface roughness is obtained by creating a roughness map;
- the reflectivity of a brick wall is created using a reflection map.
After going through the sequence of these stages, the modeled plane will turn into a realistic natural brick wall.
There are the following main types of texturing
- relief texturing;
- MIP texturing.
Relief texturing – technology for working with 3D graphics, which allows you to create the surface of the modeled object in a rich and realistic design.
Types of bump mapping
- Bump mapping – a technology that allows you to give the surface of the modeled object a relief effect and carefully detail it. This effect is created by virtually displacing pixels using a single band heightmap and a light source. As a result, participants with varying degrees of illumination can be obtained. Bump mapping is used to create difficult bumpy surfaces, protrusions and depressions.
- Normal mapping – a method for changing the normal of a pixel based on a color normal map. In this case, the changes are saved in texels. This method is the most accurate due to the use of 3 texture channels in the normal map.
- Parallax occlusion mapping – a local ray tracing method used to determine the heights and visibility of a texel. This method creates stronger relief depths. However, it does not allow for detailed detailing of objects.
MIP texturing – a method in which, when applying textures, copies of the same illustration of the texture are applied, with varying degrees of rendering of details.
Texturing is used for the following purposes :
- demonstration of the object material;
- visual representation of the physical properties of a 3D object;
- modeling lighting and reflection effects to make 3D objects realistic;
- creation of small details on the surface of the modeled object;
- rendering volumes.
The most common texturing errors are :
- incorrect scaling of the texture causes image distortion on the surface of the modeled object;
- selection of low-quality low-resolution textures;
- texturing complex objects using the UVW map tool, instead of UNWRAP UVW, which causes incorrect parameter settings;
- incorrect adjustment of texture transparency, reflection and refraction parameters;
- multiple duplication of the texture image on one surface reduces its realism.
KLONA company carries out high quality 3D modeling of objects and texturing 3d max. Professional software and many years of experience allow us to create 3D models of any complexity.
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